W: Did you use credit cards on your vacation last month in Europe?
M: Sure I did. They certainly beat going around with a wallet full of big bills. But carrying lots of cash is still very common among some older people traveling abroad.
Q: What does the man say about some elderly people?
W: Rod must be in a bad mood today. What’s wrong with him?
M: He was passed over in the selection process for the dean of the admissions office. He’d been hoping for the position for a long time.
Q: What does the man mean?
M: What a great singer Justin is! His concert is just awesome. And you’ll never regret the money you paid for the ticket.
W: Yeah. Judging by the amount of the applause, everyone was enjoying it.
Q: What does the woman mean?
W: I received an email yesterday from Henry. Do you remember? He was one of the chairpersons of our students union.
M: Yes, but I haven’t heard from him for ages. Actually I’ve been out of touch with him since our first reunion after graduation.
Q: What do we learn about the speakers?
M: Driving at night always makes me tired. Let’s stop for dinner.
W: Fine. And let’s find a motel, so that we can get an early start tomorrow.
Q: What will the speakers probably do?
W: Let’s look at the survey on consumer confidence we conducted last week. How reliable are these figures?
M: They have a 5% margin of error
Q: What are the speakers talking about?
W: Look at this catalogue, John. I think I want to get this red blouse.
M: Err, I think you’ve already one like this in blue. Do you need every color in the rainbow?
Q: What does the man mean?
W: This notice says that all the introductory marketing classes are closed.
M: That can’t be true. There’s supposed to be 13 of them this semester.
Q: What does the man mean?
M: I see on your resume that you worked as a manager of a store called “Computer Country”. Could you tell me a little more about your responsibilities there?
W: Sure. I was responsible for overseeing about 30 employees. I did all of the ordering for the store, and I kept track of the inventory.
M: What was the most difficult part of your job?
W: Probably handling angry customers. We didn’t have them very often, but when we did, I needed to make sure they were well taken care of. After all, the customer is always right.
M: That’s how we feel here too. How long did you work there?
W: I was there for three and a half years. I left the company last month.
M: And why did you leave?
W: My husband has been transferred to Boston. And I understand your company has an opening there too.
M: Yes, that’s right. We do. But the position won’t start until early next month. Would that be a problem for you?
W: No, not at all. My husband’s new job doesn’t begin for a few weeks. So we thought we would spend some time driving to Boston and stop to see my parents.
M: That sounds nice. So tell me, why are you interested in this particular position?
W: I know that your company has a great reputation, and a wonderful product. I’ve thought many times that I would like to be a part of it. When I heard about the opening in Boston, I jumped to the opportunity.
M: Well I’m glad you did.
19. What was the woman’s previous job?
20. What does the woman say was the most difficult part of her job?
21. Why is the woman looking for a job in Boston?
22. When can the woman start to work if she gets the job?
W: Today in the studio we have Alberto Cortez, the well-known Brazilian advocate of the anti-global movement. He’s here to talk about the recent report, stating that by 2050 Brazil will be the one ot the word’s wealthiest and most successful countries. Alberto, what do you say to the report?
M: You know this isn’t the first time that people are saying Brazil will be a great economic power. The same thing was said over a hundred year ago. But it didn’t happen.
W: Yes, but you must admit the world’s a very different place now.
M: Of course. In fact I believe there’s maybe some truth in the prediction this time around. First of all, though, we must remember the problems facing Brazil at the moment.
W: Such as…?
M: There’s an enormous gap between the rich and the poor in this country. In Sal Paulo, you can see shopping malls full of designer goods right next door to the slam areas without proper water and electricity supplies. A lot of work needs to be done to help people in those areas improve their lives.
W: What needs to be done?
M: Education, for example. For Brazil to be successful, we need to offer education to all Brazilians. Successful countries like South Korea and Singapore have excellent education systems. Brazil needs to learn from these countries.
W: So you are hopeful for the future.
M: As I said earlier, I’m hopeful. This isn’t an easy job. We need to make sure that these important opportunities for Brazil aren’t wasted, as they were in the past.
23. What does the recent report say about Brazil?
24. What problem does Alberto say Brazil faces now?
25. What does Alberto say about economically successful countries?
Wilma Subra had no intention of becoming a public speaker. After graduating from college with degrees in chemistry and microbiology, she went to work at Gulf South Research Institute in Louisiana. As part of her job, she conducted field research on toxic substances in the environment, often in minority communities located near large industrial polluters. She found many families were being exposed high, sometimes deadly, levels of chemicals and other toxic substances, but she was not allowed to make her information public.
Frustrated by these restrictions, Subra left her job in 1981, created her own company, and has devoted the past two decades to helping people fight back against giant industrial polluters. She works with families and community groups to conduct environmental tests, interpret test results, and organize for change. Because of her efforts, dozens of toxic sites across the country have been cleaned up, and one chemical industry spokesperson calls her “a top gun for the environmental movement.”
How has Wilma Subra achieved all this? Partly through her scientific training, partly through her commitment to environmental justice. But just as important is her ability to communicate with people through public speaking. “Public speaking,” she says, “is the primary vehicle I use for reaching people.”
If you had asked Subra before 1981, “Do you see yourself as a major public speaker?” She would have laughed at the idea. Yet today she gives more than 100 presentations a year. Along the way she has lectured at Harvard, testified before Congress, and addressed audiences in 40 states, as well as in Mexico, Canada, and Japan.
26. What did Wilma Subra do as part of her job while working at Gulf South Research Institute?
27. What did Wilma Subra leave her job in 1981?
28. What results have Wilma Subra’s efforts had in the part two decades?
29. What does the speaker say has contributed to Wilma Subra’s success?
One of the biggest challenges facing employers and educators today is the rapid advance of globalization. The market place is no longer national or regional, but extends to all corners of the world. And this requires a global ready workforce. Universities have a large part to play in preparing students for the 21st century labor market by promoting international educational experiences. The most obvious way universities can help develop global workforce is by encouraging students to study abroad as part of their course. Students who have experienced another culture first hand are more likely to be global ready when they graduate.
Global workforce development doesn’t always have to involve travel abroad however. If students learn another language and study other cultures, they will be more global ready when they graduate. It is important to point out that students also need to have a deep understanding of their own culture before they can begin to observe, analyze and evaluate other cultures. In multi-cultural societies, people can study each other’s cultures, to develop intercultural competencies, such as critical and reflective thinking, and intellectual flexibility. This can be done both through the curriculum and through activities on campus, outside of the classroom, such as art exhibitions, and lectures from international experts. Many universities are already embracing this challenge, and providing opportunities for students to become global citizens. Students themselves, however, may not realize that when they graduate, they will be competing in a global labor market, and universities need to raise awareness of these issues amongst undergraduates.
Q30: What is one of the biggest challenges facing employers and educators today?
Q31: What should students do first before they can really understand other cultures?
Q32: What should college students realize according to the speaker?
To see if hair color affects a person’s chances of getting a job, researchers at California State University asked 136 college students to review the resume and photograph of a female applicant for a job as an accountant. Each student was given the same resume. But the applicant’s picture was altered, so that in some photos her hair was golden, in some red and in some brown. The result? With brown hair, the woman was rated more capable, and she was offered a higher salary than when she had golden or red hair. Other studies have found similar results. Many respondents rate women with golden hair with less intelligent than other people, and red heads as more temperamental. Women with red or golden hair are victims of the common practice of stereotyping.
A stereotype is a simplistic or exaggerated image that humans carrying in their minds about groups of people. For example, lawyers are shrewd and dishonest is a popular stereotype. Stereotyping can occur in public speaking classes. When trying to choose a speech topic, some males think that women are uninterested in how to repair cars, while some females think that men are uninterested in creative hobbies, such as knitting and needle point. We should reject stereotypes, because they force all people in a group into the same simple pattern. They fail to account for individual differences, and the wide range of characteristics among members of any group. Some lawyers are dishonest, yes! But many are not. Some women are uninterested in repairing cars, yes! But some are enthusiastic mechanics.
Q33: What did researchers at California State University find?
Q34: What is the popular stereotype of lawyers?
Q35: Why does the speaker say we should reject stereotypes?
The ancient Greeks developed basic memory systems called mnemonics. The name is derived from their Goddess of memory "Mnemosyne". In the ancient world, a trained memory was an immense asset, particularly in public life. There were no convenient devices for taking notes, and early Greek orators delivered long speeches with great accuracy because they learned the speeches using mnemonic systems.
The Greeks discovered that human memory is largely an associative process that it works by linking things together. For example, think of an apple. The instant your brain registers the word "apple", it recalls the shape, color, taste, smell and texture of that fruit. All these things are associated in your memory with the word "apple". This means that any thought about a certain subject will often bring up more memories that are related to it. An example could be when you think about a lecture you have had. This could trigger a memory about what you''re talking about through that lecture, which can then trigger another memory. Associations do not have to be logical. They just have to make a good link. An example given on a website I was looking at follows, "Do you remember the shape of Austria? Canada? Belgium? Or Germany? Probably not. What about Italy though? If you remember the shape of Italy, it is because you have been told at some time that Italy is shaped like a boot. You made an association with something already known, the shape of a boot. And Italy shape could not be forgotten once you had made the association.